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1. Objectivity

In order to ensure objectivity, partiality in any form should be avoided. This relates to formulation of research design, analysis and interpretation of data, evaluation of the work of peers, recruitment of staff, applications for award of grants, giving expert testimony, and other aspects of the scientific research where objectivity is essential. It is recommended to try to avoid partiality and self-deception. The researcher must openly disclose any personal or financial interests that might influence scientific research.

2. Confidentiality

The researcher must save confidential information, such as articles submitted for publication, records of employees, professional or military secrets and the records of patients’ health records etc.

3. Morality

To ensure high moral standards of research, the researcher must comply with promises and agreements, be honest and seek sustainability of thoughts and actions.

4. Honesty

Academic honesty and integrity is an indispensable prerequisite in all kinds of scientific endeavour. The scientist must honestly present information on the data, results, research methods and procedures, and publication status. It is extremely unethical to falsify and distort the data, to deceive colleagues, agencies aiding grants or the public.

5. Prudence

The researcher must carefully avoid errors and omissions. It is important to evaluate carefully and critically both one’s own work and the work of peers. It is important to systematize all research-related activities (e.g., data collection, planning research stages and correspondence with agencies and journals).

6. Respect for colleagues

The researcher must respect his/her colleagues and peers by dealing with them honestly.

7. Respect for intellectual property

The researcher must respect patents, copyright laws and other forms of intellectual property. He/she must not use unpublished research data, methods, or results without due permission. Norms relating to citations and references must be duly followed and it is strictly forbidden for the researcher to plagiarize.

8. Openness

The researcher must openly share data, ideas, tools, and resources, be open to criticism and new ideas

9. Social responsibility

The researcher must promote social welfare and try to avoid harm and strive for social good through research, public education, and advocacy activities.

10. Antidiscrimination

The researcher must avoid discrimination against students or colleagues on the basis of sex, race, nationality, or other factors not related to scientific excellence and honesty.

12. Competence

The researcher must maintain and improve professional competence through lifelong learning, and take measures to promote competence and excellence in science and education.

13. Legitimacy

The researcher must have sound and up-to-date knowledge of relevant laws relating to his/her work as well as institutional and government policies and duly comply with them.

14. Security of people involved in scientific research

While conducting scientific research with human beings, one must strive to minimize risks/damage and maximize benefits. The researcher must ensure respect for human dignity, privacy, and autonomy. Special precautions must be taken while working with vulnerable populations, and seek a fair distribution of the research benefits and burdens.

15. Responsible publication

The researcher should publicize the results of the research for the sake of science and further scientific research and not for the benefit of his career. He/she should avoid unnecessary publication or republication.